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What is the onion architecture?

What is the onion architecture?

1 décembre 2020

Just like in the stratified design, you’re putting stuff that changes more frequently on an outer layer. The GET request for the DeleteUser action method returns _DeleteUser partial View. The code snippet mentioned below is under the User folder of Views. The GET request for the EditUser action method returns _EditUser partial view, where code snippet follows under the User folder of views. The GET request for the AddUser action method returns _AddUser partial view; the code snippet follows under the User folder of views.

  • This layer has an implementation of the Dependency Inversion Principle so that the application builds a loosely coupled application.
  • Because the Go interfaces don’t need to be explicitly implemented, we can define them next to the code that needs them.
  • As you may have already noticed, they are using Entity Framework Core for performing database operations.
  • This layer MUST NOT have interaction with the outside world or any other layer.
  • Yes, Infact you should use a Repository pattern always to keep a nice abstraction over the database.
  • Before closing my article – I’d like to leave you guys with one though – which is “loose coupling”.

Domain Model repository / API client interfaces SHOULD be implemented here. This layer will mainly need code from the Domain Model, but will probably not use any of the other layers. To keep code clean, it’s recommended to use only the Domain Model layer.

Creating Infrastructure Layer of Onion Architecture

This project holds both repository and data, context classes. This layer is the bridge between external infrastructure and the domain layers. The domain layers often need information or functionality in order to complete business functionality, however they should not directly depend on these. Instead, the application layer needs to depend on the the contracts defined in the Domain Services layer.

the center layer of the onion architecture

The business rules will return, well this is the new state that has to be stored, or now we have to send an email. That interaction layer is just going to iterate through the plan and do it. You’ve extracted all of the decisions out into your plan.

C# programmers are drawn to Onion Architecture due to the dependency flows. If you are interested in learning more C# while working with the Onion Architecture, visit the TechRepublic Academy. At the center of the onion is your domain – your business logic core on which everything in the application depends.

Note, that infrastructure is still present as a fragment of external onion circle. I guess it is done to make things easier to read onion architecture by someone, used to layered approach. Infrastructure is visually broken into pieces, all of those are application boundaries.

Elsewhere you had mentioned that adding repositories increases lines of code and yes, it does; however, “number of lines of code” is useless as a quality metric. Coupling between components and between layers is a much better quality heuristic, and onion architecture is all about managing that coupling. This is how you can invert the dependencies to build scalable applications. When there is just a logical separation in your application, we can term it as layers or N Layers. In cases where there is both a physical and logical separation of concerns, it is often referred to as n-tiered application where n is the number of separations. In this article, we will deal with Layered Architecture.

Does a react app really need a software architectural pattern like MVVM or MVC?

You have to adapt your internal structures to what the external API expects. Think SQL queries, HTTP or gRPC clients, file readers and writers, Pub/Sub message publishers. The second change follows the Repository Pattern that Robert introduced in the previous article.My refactoring moved database-related code in trainings to a separate structure. The book presents scientific evidence on methods leading to high performance in development teams. The approach I describe is not only based on our experiences but also mentioned throughout the book. If you have been using Asp.net web forms to develop web application then adopting MVC architecture even fits better, because it provides the required framework to build web apps MVC way.

It makes it easy to test the domain layer, which means you can ensure all of your business rules are being respected and write long term bug-proof code. DDD together with Onion are a consistent way to avoid the cascade effect code, where you change one piece and the side effects are innumerable. It does however define interfaces (e.g. IContactRepository, IContactWebService, IMessageBus), that are implemented by the Infrastructure Layer. The idea that design can be separated from deployment is a fallacy.


This will help to keep things testable and also help when you decide you want to use a different framework a few years down the road. Drilling down deeper into the domain layer makes this issue more apparent. The LayerProductionApplicationService uses a set of Domain Services. When we’re structuring our functional software, we want to isolate the actions from the calculations. We can do that using the Onion Architecture, which has layers like an onion.

the center layer of the onion architecture

Developers tend to implement features in the part of the code base that is most familiar to them. They don’t always understand the nuances of the abstractions that they are supposed to protect. Without rigorous policing you can find feature logic scattered incoherently around various layers as the abstractions are gradually eroded. All these types of objects together represent the business logic of the project. « Access / Call » is different to « Depend / Import ».

The Clean Code

The Onion architecture, introduced by Jeffrey Palermo, overcomes the issues of layered architecture with great ease. With Onion Architecture, the game-changer is that the Domain Layer is at the Core of the Entire Application. This means higher flexibility and lesser coupling. In this approach, we can see that all the Layers are dependent only on the Core Layers.

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The Infrastructure project in which we are working with database and database logics are part of the external layers. UI or in this case the MVC application is also an external layer and depndes on the Core project. All layers are interacting to each other using the interfaces rather than the concrete definitions.

Layers in Onion Architecture for an ASP.NET Core app

So on the “Id” field enter 1 which is the id of the student, and on the request body change the name, standard and rank values of the student, see below json. Swagger comes pre-configured in the Web API template. So run the app in Visual Studio and you will see the Swagger screen. Install-Package Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.ToolsNow open Package Manager Console window and navigate to the WebApi folder.

the center layer of the onion architecture

This project contains the user interface for both user and user profile entities database operations and the controller to do these operations. The Onion Architecture term was coined by Jeffrey Palermo in 2008. This architecture provides a better way to build applications for better testability, maintainability, and dependability on the infrastructures like databases and services. There are two types of coupling – tight coupling and loose coupling.

Implementing Onion Architecture in ASP.NET Core WebApi Project

Application Services interact with other services to fulfil the client’s request. Let’s consider the use case to create an order with a list of items. We first need to calculate the price including tax computation/discounts, etc., save order items and send order confirmation notification to the customer. The application services can be only invoked by Infrastructure services.

Can you try this yourself and see what the problem is? Well, you are in luck 😛 I already have a complete implementation of Blazor Clean Architecture. Your articles are well organized with deep details. I am salute your https://globalcloudteam.com/ time and efforts to share articles. In other cases, like you have mentioned, go with Infrastructure.Twilio. This is if you want a really good separation of the implementations, as each Project will be generating a DLL.

The biggest offender is the coupling of the UI and business logic to the data access. Did I just say that the UI is coupled to the data access? The UI cannot function if the business logic is not available. The business logic in return cannot function if the data access is not available. We gracefully ignore the infrastructure because typically it varies from system to system.

The unique part of Onion Architecture is – it has zero dependencies over data layers like classic multi-tier architectures. In a nutshell, the idea is that the inner layers of the application cannot and should not depend on the outer layer, but the outer layer can depend on the layers beneath it. This way it does not matter which database technology you depend on or which ORM is introduced because the innermost layers do not depend on them.

Preface: where to place my code?

Any and all domain entities should be in this folder. The name Onion Architecture was originally coined by Jeff Palermo, but has since gone under lots of other pseudonyms. Ports and Adapters, Hexagonal Architecture and Clean Architecture are all different names for effectively the same thing.


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